Network Security Aspects – Notes

Network Security Aspects Notes & Important Points

• Malware is a software developed with an intention to damage computer hardware, software, steal data, or cause any other trouble to a user.

• A virus is a piece of software code created to perform malicious activities and hamper resources of a computer system.

• The Worm is also a malware that incurs unexpected or damaging behaviour on an infected computer system.

• Worms are standalone programs that are capable of working on its own.

• Ransomware is a type of malware that targets user data.

• Ransomware either blocks the user from accessing their own data or threatens to publish their personal data online and demands ransom payment against the same.

• Trojan is a malware, that looks like a legitimate software and once it tricks a user into installing it, it acts pretty much like a virus or a worm.

• Spyware records and sends the collected information to an external entity without the consent or knowledge of a user.

• An adware displays unwanted online advertisements using pop-ups, web pages, or installation screens.

• A keylogger makes logs of daily keyboard usage and may send it to an external entity as well.

• The on-screen keyboard is an application software that uses a fixed QWERTY key layout.

• Online virtual keyboard is a web-based or a standalone software with a randomised key layout every time it is used.

• A malware can take many routes to reach your computer, which include: Downloaded from the Internet, Spam Email, using infected Removable Storage Devices, and network propagation.

• An antivirus software is used to detect and remove viruses and hence the name anti-virus.

• Antiviruses now come bundled with the prevention, detection, and removal of a wide range of malware.

• Some of the prominent methods of malware identification used by an antivirus include: Signature-based detection, Sandbox detection, Heuristics.

• Any unwanted data, information, email, advertisement, etc. is called Spam.

• HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) and HTTPS (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure) are a set of rules or protocol that govern how data can be transmitted over the World Wide Web.

• Firewall is a network security system designed to protect a trusted private network from unauthorised access or traffic originating from an untrusted external network.

• There are two basic types of firewalls — Network Firewall and Host-based Firewall.

• A computer cookie is a small file or data packet, which is stored by a website on the client’s computer.

• Cookies are used by the websites to store browsing information of the user.

• Hackers/Crackers find loopholes and vulnerabilities in computer systems or computer networks and gain access to unauthorised information.

• If a hacker uses its knowledge to find and help in fixing the security flaws in the system, its termed as White Hat hacker.

• If hackers use their knowledge unethically to break the law and disrupt security by exploiting the flaws and loopholes in a system, then they are called black hat hackers.

• The grey hats take system security as a challenge and just hack systems for the fun of it.

• The Denial of Service (DoS) attack floods the victim resource with traffic, making the resource appear busy.

• Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) is an attack, where the flooded requests come from compromised computer (Zombies) systems distributed across the globe or over a very large area.

• Network Intrusion refers to any unauthorised activity on a computer network.

• Snooping is the process of secret capture and analysis of network traffic by malicious users.

• Eavesdropping is an unauthorised realtime interception or monitoring of private communication between two entities over
a network.

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