Introduction to Internet and Web

Topics covered :

  1. Introduction to Internet, URL, WWW, and its applications- Web, email, Chat, VoIP
  2. Website: Introduction, the difference between a website and webpage, static vs dynamic web page, web server, and hosting of a website.
  3. Web Browsers: Introduction, commonly used browsers, browser settings, add-ons, and plug-ins, cookies

Internet – Introduction and Web Services

What is Internet?

The Internet is a computer-based worldwide information network. It is an example of WAN. Internet is composed of a large of smaller interconnected networks, to share information with each other and share various resources, such as the power of supercomputers and databases. The Internet has made it possible for people all over the world to effectively and inexpensively communicate with each other.

History of Internet

  • The Internet began with ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency) in 1969 by the American Department of Defence to link four cities.  
  • In 1972, there were 37 computers operating on the system. Then ARPANET gets connected with the international computers.  FTP (File Transfer Protocol) was developed.
  • In 1982, the NCP/IP protocols were replaced by TCP/IP and DNS (Domain Name System introduced).
  • In 1986, NSFNet (National Science Foundation Network) formed the backbone of the modern Internet.
  • In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee (a British programmer) developed a new language called HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) and it gives the concept of the World Wide Web (WWW).
  • In 1990, the older networks developed a ‘gateway’ into the new system, so it was reached by the Internet.
  • In 1994, Web Browsers like Mosaic and Netscape had developed. In 1995 Microsoft launched a web browser Internet Explorer.

Domain Name

  • The domain name is the unique name assigned to a website.
  • Just like every computer connected to the internet has its own IP Address, every website on Internet also has its unique IP address.
  • A domain name generally contains the following parts –
    • www
    • Name describing the website purpose
    • Top level domain (TLD)  such as .com, .co,in, .net, .org, .info, .online
  • Example –
  • The domain names are internally converted into IP addresses before communication, called domain name resolution.


URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

WWW (World Wide Web)

  • WWW stands for World Wide Web, It was proposed between 1989-91 by Tim Berners Lee.
  • The World Wide Web is a set of programs, standard and protocols that allows multimedia and hypertext files to be created, displayed and linked on the Internet. WWW is also known as Web.

Application / Services of WEB

  • E-mail (Electronic Mail)
  • Chat / Online Messaging / Instant Messaging
  • VoIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol) / Telephony

E-Mail (Electronic Mail)

  • E-mail is the most widely used service on the Internet. It stands for Electronic Mail.
  • E-mail is used to send written messages between individuals or groups of individuals.
  • E-mail messages are managed by E-mail servers. There are so many companies which provide the facility of E-mail:-,,,

E-mail Address

  • For sending and receiving e-mails, you need an e-mail address or account like
  • The format of E-mail is:-    username@hostname

Advantages of E-mail

  • Low Cost, 
  • Speed,
  • Waste reduction,
  • Ease of Use,
  • Record Maintenance

Limitations of E-mail

  • Hardware requirement
  • Impermanent
  • Hard to convey emotions


Chat is the most popular service on the Internet. Which allows passing the text message immediately to anyone. Online textual talk is called Chatting.

Types of Chat

  • Instant Messaging (IM) – It is a type of communications service via IM software, which allows to sending of a private text message. Example – AOL Messanger, Facebook Messanger, Skype, WhatsApp, etc.

  • Internet Relay Chat (IRC) – IRC is not owned by a company. To use IRC, we need an IRC Client program that is connected to IRC Server.

  • Web-based Chat – It is similar to IRC, but no need of any software. It is based on the website, which provides this facility. For example Yahoo Chat.

  • ICQ – ICQ is a cross-platform messenger and VoIP client. The name ICQ derives from the English phrase “I Seek You”. It offers to chat via ICQ software, which can be downloaded . It is used as a conferencing tool by individuals on the Net to chat, e-mail, perform file transfers, play computer games, and more. You will get a unique ICQ number.

VoIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol) / Telephony

  • Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), also called IP telephony, is a method and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.
  • In more common terms phone service over the Internet.

Advantages of VoIP

  • Lower Cost.
  • Increased functionality 

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