Class XII Employability Skills Notes Unit 3 ICT Skills

Class 12 Employability Skills

Class Notes on Unit 3 ICT Skills

Unit 3: ICT Skills

Getting Started with Spreadsheet


A spreadsheet is an electronic document, which has rows and columns. It is used to store data systematically and do calculations.

Types of spreadsheet

There are many types of spreadsheets available that have been created by different companies. Some of the most popular ones are Microsoft Excel, LibreOffice Calc, Goole sheets, OpenOffice Calc.

Components of a spreadsheet

  1. Row: A row is an arrangement of cells in a horizontal (sleeping) manner.
  2. Column: A column is an arrangement of cells in a vertical (standing) manner.
  3. Cell: A cell is a rectangle shaped box, where the row and column meet. You can enter text, numbers, date, formula, etc., in a cell. The cell that is selected appears highlighted.
  4. Name Box: The name box shows the location of the selected cell. The location of the cell is a combination of column and row. For example, A1, where A is the column name and 1 is the row number.
  5. Worksheet: A worksheet is a collection of cells in the form of a grid (a network of lines that intersect each other, making rectangles). When you open a spreadsheet for the first time, you see a blank worksheet with the name ‘Sheet1’.
  6. Workbook: A workbook is a spreadsheet that has one or more worksheets.
Performing Basic Operations in a Spreadsheet

Steps to Enter Data

  • Click on the cell where you want to enter data
  • Type text or number. As you type, you can see the data in the Formula Bar as well. Press Enter when you complete typing.
  • The cursor is set on the next cell. You can continue entering other data.

Type of data

There are three main type of data — text, numbers and formula.

Editing Data in a Cell

  • Double click on the cell you want to edit. OR Click on the cell you want to edit. OR Click on the Cell and press F2.

Selecting multiple cells

When a single cell is selected it is called an active cell. When several cells is selected, it is called cell range.

There are several ways in which multiple cells can be selected.

  • To select an entire row, click the row heading.
  • To select a full column, click the column heading.
  • To select an entire worksheet, click the grey rectangle on the upper left corner of the worksheet.
  • To select a range of cells, click on the starting cell, then hold down the mouse button and drag it till you have selected all the cells you want. Release the mouse button.

Saving the spreadsheet in various formats

After entering data, you can save the spreadsheet in the same way as a Notepad or any other word file.

Click File, and then, Save. This will open a Save As dialog box. Type the file name and click Save.

The default Save as type is ODF Spreadsheet (.ods)

Closing the spreadsheet

Once you have saved the data, you can close the spreadsheet by clicking File, and then, Close.

Data stored in a spreadsheet can be used in calculations, graphical representation and display of information.

Working with Data and Formatting Text

Using a spreadsheet for addition

To find out the total marks for each student, he/she needs to add the marks in each subject.

The symbol (operator) used for addition in a spreadsheet is ‘+’ (plus). To do any calculation in a spreadsheet, you need to use ‘=’ (equal-to) symbol, which tells the spreadsheet that a formula has been entered. Only then the spreadsheet will perform the calculation and display the result.

There are various ways to do addition in a spreadsheet.

Adding Values directly

Type the formula by using =, + and values. For example; =50+36+68

Using Cell Address:

Type the the formula by using =, + and cell address. For example, =A2+B2+C2

Using Sum() function

To add numbers, we have the Sum() function. This helps in adding the numbers in separate cells or in a cell range.
For example:

  • =Sum(25,36)
  • =Sum(A1, B1)
  • =Sum(A1:C5)

Copying and moving formula

Spreadsheets provide a way to copy the formula from one cell to another. The
values are automatically adjusted in the new cells.

  • Click on the cell with the formula.
  • For copying: Right-click and select Copy or press Ctrl+ C.
  • For moving: Right-click and select Cut or press Ctrl+ X.
  • Right-click and select Paste or press Ctrl+V

Format cells and content:

To change the font style and font size, choose the font-style and font-size from Font.

Highlight text (shortcut keys):

  • To make text bold: Ctrl+B
  • To underline text: Ctrl+U
  • To make text italic or slanting: Ctrl+I

Align Text in a Cell:

The alignment of text can be done by the alignment feature of spreadsheet.

In a spreadsheet, you align, you can position the text in a cell to the left, right or center, called Horizontal alignment.

You can also align the text to top, middle and bottom. This is called Vertical alignment.

Advanced Features in Spreadsheet

Sorting data:

Arrangement of words in order can help one find a particular word or name easily.

The steps to sort data are as follows:

  • Select all rows and columns that have to be sorted.
  • Click on Data, and then, select Sort.
  • By default the order is Ascending, which means from the lowest to the highest. We will change it to Descending.

Filtering data

Filters features of spreadsheet allows to filter the data as per specific value.

  • Click on the AutoFilter icon on the Tool Bar.
  • This will put filters at the top of each Column.
  • Click on the filter for column.
  • The drop-down will show a list of all the values in that column.
  • By default, all values are checked or selected. Select any specific values or data. click on OK.

Protecting spreadsheet with password

The steps to protect a spreadsheet are as follows.

  1. Click on Tools and select Protect Spreadsheet.
  2. A Protect Document dialog box appears.
  3. Type in a password.
  4. Type the same password in the Confirm textbox.
  5. Click on OK.
  6. Now, when you close the file and open it again, it will ask for the password. Remember this password so that you can open the file.

Another way of protecting a spreadsheet is as follows.

  1. Click on File, and then, Save As.
  2. A Save As dialog box will appear
  3. Type the file name and click Save with password.
  4. A Set Password dialog box appears.
  5. Type a password in the first textbox, and then, type the same password in the Confirm textbox.
  6. Click on OK.
  7. Now, when you try to open the file, it will ask for a password.

Presentation Software


Presentation software is being widely used to make digital presentations.

It has many advantages, which are as follows.

  1. They are interesting as they have features like images, videos, animation and music.
  2. Making changes in digital presentations is easy.
  3. A digital presentation can be shown to a much larger audience by projecting on a screen.
  4. The presentation can be printed and distributed to the audience.

Presentation software available

There are a number of presentation software available, such as

  1. LibreOffice Impress
  2. Microsoft Office – PowerPoint
  3. OpenOffice Impress
  4. Google Slides
  5. Apple Keynote

We will be discussing and using LibreOffice Impress to create presentations in this Session as it is a free and open software.

Adding text to a presentation

By default, there are two textboxes in the first slide. The top one is for the title and the lower (bigger) one for other details. We can click on the title box and type in a title. Similarly, we can click on the lower box and type in some details

Opening, Closing, Saving and Printing a Presentation

A digital presentation can be saved as a file on the computer. This can be opened later, viewed, edited, shared with friends and colleagues, and printed.

Steps to save a presentation

The steps to save a presentation for the first time are as follows.

  1. Click on File.
  2. Select Save As or Save from the drop-down. This displays a Save As dialog box.
  3. You can select a folder where you want to save the file, for example Desktop.
    By default, the File name is ‘Untitled#’ (# is a number). You can change it to the name of your choice.
  4. The default Save As type is .ods. You can select other file types from the Save As type drop-down.
  5. Click on Save.

you can simply click File>Save or press Ctrl+S on the keyboard to save the presentation.

Steps to close a presentation

The steps to close a presentation are as follows.

  1. Click on File.
  2. Select Close from the drop-down.

Steps to open a presentation

The steps to open a presentation are as follows.

  1. Open LibreOffice Impress. Click on File.
  2. Then, select Open from the drop-down.
  3. This will display the Open dialog box.
  4. Browse and select the folder where your file is saved. Then, select the file.
  5. Click on Open.

Steps to print a presentation

Before you try to print a file, please make sure that a printer is connected to the computer.

The steps to print a presentation are as follows.

  1. Click on File.
  2. Select Print from the drop-down or you can press Ctrl+P on the keyboard.
  3. A Print dialog box is displayed.
  4. A printer attached to the computer is displayed in the dialog box.
  5. Select the number of copies you want to print.
  6. Select All, if you want to print all slides.
  7. Select Slides, if you want to print few of them and provide the slide numbers.
  8. Click on OK.

Working with Slides and Text in a Presentation

Highlighting the important points in the presentation, helps in depicting important
information easily in a short span. Let us look at how we can make our presentation more effective.

Adding slide to a presentation

Slides are like new pages, which are added to separate different topics in a presentation.

To add a new slide, do the following.

  1. Click on Slide.
  2. Select New Slide from the drop-down or You can also press Ctrl+M on the keyboard.
  3. This will add a blank New Slide to the presentation.
  4. The layout or arrangement of textboxes, etc., will be similar to the previous one.

Deleting slides

The steps to delete a slide are as follows.

  1. Select the slide that you want to delete.
  2. Click on Slide.
  3. Select Delete Slide from the drop-down.
  4. . The selected slide will be deleted.

You can press ‘Del’ key on the keyboard to delete the selected slide.

Adding and formatting text

The default layout of a LibreOffice Impress slide has two textboxes — one for the title and other for text.

If you have a blank slide with no textbox, you can insert a textbox using the option Insert>Textbox.

You can format the text in a presentation to make it look better or attractive.

  • Click on the Font Style drop-down to select a different style. This will change the way the text is written.
  • You can also change the size of the text by clicking on the Font Size drop-down and select the size (for example, 8, 12, 14, 22, etc.).

The font size of the title is increased to make it stand out

To highlight a text in LibreOffice, you can make it bold, underlined or italic, depending on the requirement.

  • First, select the text that has to be highlighted. Then, hover over the given icons in the Properties tab. Select the icon required to perform the desired function, i.e., making it bold, italic, underlined or strikethrough.

The text can be aligned either left, right, center or justified. Using the Paragraph option in the Properties tab.

The Font Color drop-down gives various colours from which you can choose and change the colour of the text.

Besides the Font Color drop-down, there is a Highlight Color drop-down. If you
select a colour from the Highlight Color drop-down, it will change the background colour of the text.

Advanced Features used in Presentation

The use of graphics, charts and images can make the presentation more meaningful.

Inserting shapes in presentation

LibreOffice provides numerous shapes, such as lines, square, circle, arrows, symbols, etc., that can be inserted into slides.

To insert an arrow,

  • Click on Insert, and then, select Shape.
  • This has several options. Choose Arrow to see different types of arrow.
  • Select the one required for the presentation, for example, ‘Circular Arrow’.

In this way, you can select any shape you want.

Once a shape is inserted in a slide, you can use the Properties tab to make changes to the properties of the shape, such as colour, size, position, direction, etc.

Inserting clipart and images in presentation

A picture speaks a thousand words. We use a lot of images in a presentation to make it simple and interesting.

The steps to insert a clipart or an image are as follows.

  1. Click on Insert from the menu.
  2. Select Image.
  3. An Insert Image dialog box appears.
  4. Browse through folders and select the image you want to use.
  5. Click on Open.

In this way, you can insert images in your presentation slides and make it more interesting.

Changing slide layout

Layout helps to arrange the slide content in an organised way.

The default layout of a LibreOffice Impress slide contains one textbox for the title and one for content.

You can change the slide layout as per the requirement.

You can do this by simply selecting the slide, and then, selecting the desired layout from the Layouts tab.

Having a layout helps to align the content in the desired way.

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