Class 11 Informatics Practices – Ch. 2 Emerging Trends NCERT Solutions

Class 11 Informatics Practices

Chapter 2. – Emerging Trends NCERT Exercise Solutions

Summary of Emerging Trends

  • Artificial Intelligence endeavors to simulate the natural intelligence of human beings into machines thus making them intelligent.
  • Machine learning comprises of algorithms that use data to learn on their own and make predictions.
  • Natural language processing (NLP) facilitates communicating with intelligent systems using a natural language.
  • Virtual reality allows a user to look at, explore, and interact with the virtual surroundings, just like one can do in the real world.
  • The superimposition of computer-generated perceptual information over the existing physical surroundings is called augmented reality.
  • Robotics can be defined as the science primarily associated with the design, fabrication, theory, and application of robots.
  • Big data holds rich information and knowledge which can be of high business value. Five characteristics of big data are: Volume, Velocity, Variety, Veracity, and Value.
  • Data analytics is the process of examining data sets in order to draw conclusions about the information they contain.
  • The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of devices that have an embedded hardware and software to communicate (connect and exchange data) with other devices on the same network.
  • A sensor is a device that takes input from the physical environment and uses built-in computing resources to perform predefined functions upon detection of specific input and then processes data before passing it on.
  • Cloud computing allows resources located at remote locations to be made available to anyone anywhere. Cloud services can be Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS).
  • Block chain technology uses a shared data base of chained blocks where copies of data base exist on multiple computers.

Chapter 2. – Emerging Trends NCERT Exercise Solutions

Solution of NCERT Exercise – Chapter 2 Emerging Trends

Question 1: List some of the cloud-based services that you are using at present.

Answer: (A) Infrastructure as a Services (IaaS) – Google Drive, Git, Google Docs,

(B) Platform as a Services (PaaS) – Web Server

(C) Software as a Services (SaaS) – Microsoft Office 365,

Question 2: What do you understand by the Internet of Things? List some of its potential applications.

Answer: The ‘Internet of Things’ is a network of devices that have an embedded hardware and software to communicate (connect and exchange data) with other devices on the same network.

At present, in a typical household, many devices have advanced hardware (microcontrollers) and software. These devices are used in isolation from each other, with maximum human intervention needed for operational directions and input data. IoT tends to bring together these devices to work in collaboration and assist each other in creating an intelligent network of things.

Application of IoT -> Access and Remotely control IoT on the go with the help of smartphone like CCTV Camera, Air Conditioner, Door Lock, Microwave Oven, etc.

Question 3: Write a short note on the following:

a) Cloud computing

Answer: Cloud computing is an emerging trend in the field of information technology, where computer-based services are delivered over the Internet or the cloud, for the case

of their accessibility form anywhere using any smart device. The services comprise software, hardware (servers), databases, storage, etc.

Through cloud computing, a user can run a bigger application or process a large amount of data without having the required storage or processing power on their personal computer as long as they are connected to the Internet.

Cloud computing offers cost-effective, on-demand resources. A user can avail need-based resources from the cloud at a very reasonable cost.

b) Big data and its characteristics

Answer: The generation of data sets of enormous volume and complexity called Big Data. Such data cannot be processed and analysed using traditional data processing tools as the data is not only voluminous, but also unstructured like our posts, instant messages and chats, photographs that we share through various sites, our tweets, blog articles, news items, opinion polls and their comments, audio/video chats, etc.

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Characteristics of Big Data

a) Volume – The most prominent characteristic of big data is its enormous size.

b) Velocity – The rate of generation of data is very high. Big data has an exponentially higher rate of generation than traditional data sets.

c) Variety – It asserts that a data set has varied data, such as structured, semi-structured and unstructured data.

d) Veracity – Veracity refers to the trustworthiness of the data. Big data can be sometimes inconsistent, biased, noisy or there can be abnormality in the data or issues with the data collection methods.

e) Value – Big data is not only just a big pile of data, but also possess to have hidden patterns and useful knowledge which can be of high business value.

Question 4: Explain the following along with their applications.

a) Artificial Intelligence

Answer: Artificial Intelligence  – Artificial intelligence (AI) is a technology that enables a computer to think or act in a more human way. It does this by taking in information from its surroundings and deciding its response based on what it learns or senses.

Application areas of AI are Machine learning, Natural Language Processing, Robotics, Business analytics, driverless vehicles, etc.

b) Machine Learning

Answer : Machine Learning – Machine Learning is an application of artificial intelligence (AI) that provides systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed.

Machine Learning applications learn from experience like humans without direct programming. When exposed to new data, these application learn, grow, change and develop by themselves.

Machine Learning has found applications in many areas of our lives such as face recognition, online campaigns, Virtual Personal Assistants (like siri, Alexa, Google Assistant, Cortana, etc.), Online chatbots (virtual chat assistants) etc.

Question 5: Differentiate between cloud computing and grid computing with suitable examples.

Answer: Differences between Cloud Computing and Grid Computing

Cloud computingGrid computing
One server to compute several tasks or services concurrently i.e Virtualization of services.Multiple Servers are allocated on the Single Application.
It is Service Oriented i.e more frequently used to support long services.Application oriented, i.e. typically used for job execution for a limited time.
Multiple ServicesSingle Application
On-demand servicesMaximum computing for one application.
A central computer server with single access point and spans several computing centres. Like Google and Amazon.A decentralized system, which spans geographically distributed sites and lack of central control.
Virtualization of hardware, software and storage platforms.Virtualization of data and computing resources.
Google Drive, One Drive, Mobile ApplicationsGridGain, JPPF, JBossCache, EhCache,

Question 6: Justify the following statement-

‘Storage of data is cost effective and time saving in cloud computing.’

Answer: In cloud computing, the on-demand services are available instantly and one has to pay only for the service and not for the entire infrastructure. Thus, when one avails storage on a cloud, they just pay for the storage they used and not for other infrastructure, hence it is cost-effective. And since cloud services are readily available, these are time-saving too.

Question 7: What is on-demand service? How it is provided in cloud computing?

Answer:   On-demand services allow users to use a service instantly as and when required. The cloud services are on-demand services which make available the cloud resources at run time, when and where needed. On-demand cloud services allow end users to use cloud computing, storage, software and other resources instantly and in many cases without limits.

Question 8: Write examples of the following:

a) Government provided cloud computing platform

b) Large scale private cloud service providers and the services they provide

Answer:   (a) MeghRaj     

(b) DropBox, Google Drive, OneDrive – They provide storage on demand.

Question 9: A company interested in cloud computing is looking for a provider who offers a set of basic services such as virtual server provisioning and on-demand storage that can be combined into a platform for deploying and running customised applications. What type of cloud computing model fits these requirements?

a) Platform as a Service

b) Software as a Service

c) Infrastructure as a Service

Answer:   (c) Infrastructure as a Service.

Question 10: Which is not one of the features of IoT devices?

a) Remotely controllable

b) Programmable

c) Can turn themselves off if necessary

d) All of the above

Answer: (b) Prorammable

Question 11: If Government plans to make a smart school by applying IoT concepts, how can each of the following be implemented in order to transform a school into IoT enabled smart school?

a) e-textbooks

b) Smart boards

c) Online tests

d) Wifi sensors on classrooms doors

e) Sensors in buses to monitor their location

f) Wearables (watches or smart belts) for attendance monitoring.


e-textbooks – can be implemented using IoT ready tablets or smartphone.

Smartboards – can connect to the school’s e-content repository and can update about the content usage.

Online Tests – can be carried out using IoT devices, which can make available the centralized tests and can record students’ movements during the test.

WiFi sensors – on class doors can help create the class network, which can be used by the teachers and students.

Sensors in buses – enhance security and keep parents and school authorities well-informed.

Wearables – for attendance monitoring will ensure correct and updated attendance records at all times.

Question 12: Five friends plan to try a startup. However, they have a limited budget and limited computer infrastructure. How can they avail the benefits of cloud services to launch their startup?

Answer:  They can use some free services available on public clouds such as Google Drive, AWS(Amazon Web Services) etc.

Question 13: Governments provide various scholarships to students of different classes. Prepare a report on how blockchain technology can be used to promote accountability, transparency and efficiency in distribution of scholarships?

Answer:  Using blockchain, a complete trail of all the scholarships allotted and the allotee’s details will be available. Blockchain will ensure that it is available to all the clients and cannot be comprised or forged. Thus, it will promote accountability, transparency and efficiency in the distribution of scholarships.

Question 14: How IoT and WoT are related?

Answer:  IoT (Internet of Things) is about creating a network of objects, things, people, systems and applications.

WoT (Web of Things) tries to integrate the objects, things and people, etc. to the Web using existing web standards.

IoT needs a single universal application protocol to integrate the things. WoT reuses and leverages readily available and widely popular Web protocols, standards and blueprints to make data and services offered by objects more accessible.

In overall both IoT and WoT provides a facility to control the different devices remotely by using Smartphone or Laptop or Desktop.

Question 15: Match the following:

Column AColumn B
You got a reminder to take medicationSmart Parking
You got a SMS alert that you forgot to lock the doorSmart Wearable
You got the SMS alert that parking space is available near your blockHome Automation  
You turned off your LED TV from your wrist watchSmart Health


Column AColumn B
You got a reminder to take medicationSmart Health
You got a SMS alert that you forgot to lock the doorHome Automation  
You got the SMS alert that parking space is available near your blockSmart Parking
You turned off your LED TV from your wrist watchSmart Wearable

I tried my best to put all answer correctly.

If you found or noticed any thing is given wrong, please give your suggestions. I am always welcomes your suggestions with my open heart.

Happy Learning !! Stay Home !! Stay Safe


NCERT Exercise Solution – Class 11 Informatics Practices

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